In Russia, the main shock could be felt in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk (MSK 4) and Kurilsk (MSK 4). Narita and Haneda Airport both briefly suspended operations after the quake, but suffered little damage and reopened within 24 hours. Subsequent analysis found that many Japanese nuclear plants, including Fukushima Daiichi, were not adequately protected against tsunamis. The reservoir at one concrete gravity dam suffered a small non-serious slope failure.  The tsunami washed away the sole bridge to Miyatojima, Miyagi, isolating the island's 900 residents. Fishing equipment was scattered on the high cliff above the bay. Approximately 30 homes or buildings were destroyed and 1,046 other buildings were damaged to varying degrees. The latest report from the Japanese National Police Agency report confirms 15,899 deaths, 6,157 injured, and 2,529 people missing across twenty prefectures, and a report from 2015 indicated 228,863 people were still living away from their home in either temporary housing or due to permanent relocation. Destructive boundary. These include Sendai #4, New-Sendai #1 and #2, Haranomachi #1 and #2, Hirono #2 and #4 and Hitachinaka #1. , Save the Children reports that as many as 100,000 children were uprooted from their homes, some of whom were separated from their families because the earthquake occurred during the school day. 1. , There were no derailments of Shinkansen bullet train services in and out of Tokyo, but their services were also suspended.  At least 101 designated tsunami evacuation sites were hit by the wave. Warnings were issued and evacuations were carried out in many countries bordering the Pacific. The surface energy of the seismic waves from the earthquake was calculated to be 1.9×1017 joules, which is nearly double that of the 9.1 Mw 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami that killed 230,000 people. 4.  According to a 2020 study, "the earthquake and its aftermaths resulted in a 0.47 percentage point decline in Japan’s real GDP growth in the year following the disaster. Two months after the earthquake, mangaka Hirohiko Araki incorporated the earthquake itself into the story of JoJolion, the eighth installment of the JoJo's Bizarre Adventure series; while JoJolion is set several months after the fictional town of Morioh was devastated by the earthquake, the earthquake has a key role in the plot as it is the cause behind the emergence of the Wall Eyes, mysterious stone structures that ultimately set the story into motion.  Reportedly, some locals had attempted to repair leaks in the dam before it completely failed. It was originally read as an 8.9 magnitude quake but was recalculated as a magnitude 9 as more data became available.  In Tokyo, there was damage to Koishikawa Kōrakuen, Rikugien, Hamarikyū Onshi Teien, and the walls of Edo Castle. , The tsunami broke icebergs off the Sulzberger Ice Shelf in Antarctica, 13,000 km (8,100 mi) away.  Authorities in Wewak, East Sepik, Papua New Guinea evacuated 100 patients from the city's Boram Hospital before it was hit by the waves, causing an estimated US$4 million in damage. The 2011 TÅhoku earthquake and tsunami was a 9.0-magnitude earthquake followed by tsunami waves. Another cause of delayed evacuations was the release of the second update on the tsunami warning long after the earthquake (28 minutes, according to observations); by that time, power failures and similar circumstances reportedly prevented the update from reaching some residents. Indian Ocean Earthquake, 26 December 2004. Because of the unquestioning nature of most Japanese media to hold to the "party line", many Japanese mid-level officials and experts spoke to foreign media to get their opinions and observations publicized. Also, many people caught in the tsunami thought they were on high enough ground to be safe. , The aftermath of the twin disasters also left Japan's coastal cities and towns with nearly 25 million tons of debris.  The World Bank's estimated economic cost was US$235 billion, making it the costliest natural disaster in history. The timing of the earliest recorded tsunami maximum readings ranged from 15:12 to 15:21, between 26 and 35 minutes after the earthquake had struck. The heat build-up caused the generation of hydrogen gas. The timing of moment magnitude nine (M w9) -class earthquakes appears to be controlled by multiple preceding slip events, smaller earthquakes However, occurring as it did 373 km (232 mi) north east of Tokyo, the TÅhoku earthquake came as a surprise to seismologists.  The Pacific plate, which moves at a rate of 8 to 9 cm (3.1 to 3.5 in) per year, dips under Honshu's underlying plate, building large amounts of elastic energy. Figure 1 shows the magnitude frequency distribution for the earthquakes recorded to date. The report also stated that the quake had caused several major landslides on the seabed in the affected area. The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami has been assigned GLIDE identifier EQ-2011-000028-JPN by the Asian Disaster Reduction Center.  These observations included tsunami maximum readings of over 3 metres (9.8 ft) at the following locations and times on 11 March 2011, following the earthquake at 14:46 JST:, Many areas were also affected by waves of 1 to 3 metres (3 ft 3 in to 9 ft 10 in) in height, and the JMA bulletin also included the caveat that "At some parts of the coasts, tsunamis may be higher than those observed at the observation sites." The earthquake lasted 6 minutes â¦ Good news, bad news , The expected electricity crisis in 2011 summer was successfully prevented thanks to all the setsuden measures.  The speed of the Earth's rotation increased, shortening the day by 1.8 microseconds due to the redistribution of Earth's mass. On March 11, 2011, the largest earthquake in Japanâs modern history struck off the northeast coast, about 130 kilometers (81 miles) east of the mainland region of Tohoku. , 754 cultural properties were damaged across nineteen prefectures, including five National Treasures (at Zuigan-ji, Ōsaki Hachiman-gū, Shiramizu Amidadō, and Seihaku-ji); 160 Important Cultural Properties (including at Sendai Tōshō-gū, the Kōdōkan, and Entsū-in, with its western decorative motifs); one hundred and forty-four Monuments of Japan (including Matsushima, Takata-matsubara, Yūbikan, and the Site of Tagajō); six Groups of Traditional Buildings; and four Important Tangible Folk Cultural Properties. 05:46, 11/03/2011. On March 11, 2011, a magnitude 8.9 earthquake struck off the east coast of Honshu, Japan, about 130 kilometers (80 miles) east of Sendai. , Of the 13,135 fatalities recovered by 11 April 2011, 12,143 or 92.5% died by drowning. , Four days later on 11 April, another magnitude 7.1 Mw aftershock struck Fukushima, causing additional damage and killing a total of three people.  Several nuclear and conventional power plants went offline after the earthquake, reducing the Tokyo Electric Power Company's (TEPCO) total capacity by 21 GW. Overall electricity consumption during July and August was also 14% less than in the previous year. The thousands of bodies, however, exceeded the capacity of available crematoriums and morgues, many of them damaged, and there were shortages of both kerosene—each cremation requires 50 litres—and dry ice for preservation. Early estimates placed insured losses from the earthquake alone at US$14.5 to $34.6 billion. Magnitude: 9.2.  The earthquake and tsunami also caused extensive and severe structural damage in north-eastern Japan, including heavy damage to roads and railways as well as fires in many areas, and a dam collapse.  Nearby Haneda Airport, built mostly on reclaimed land, was not damaged. , Matsushima Air Field of the Japan Self-Defense Force in Miyagi Prefecture was struck by the tsunami, flooding the base and resulting in damage to all 18 Mitsubishi F-2 fighter jets of the 21st Fighter Training Squadron. The bulletin also included initial tsunami observation details, as well as more detailed maps for the coastlines affected by the tsunami waves. It was not as bad as the Chernobyl disaster, but worse than the Three Mile Island accident. Japan specifically requested assistance from teams from Australia, New Zealand, South Korea, and the United States. To prevent under-reporting of tsunami heights, early quantitative observation data that are smaller than the expected amplitude will be overridden and the public will instead be told that the situation is under observation. The Tohoku earthquake that struck Japan on 11th March 2011 was one of the biggest earthquakes recorded in the last 100 years and caused shaking at the surface that lasted 6 minutes.  By 21 March 2011, the number of households in the north without electricity fell to 242,927. , According to Japan's foreign ministry, 116 countries and 28 international organizations offered assistance. In the fall of 2016 Japan's National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Resilience (NIED; Japanese abbreviation, Bosai Kaken; full name Bousai Kagaku Gijutsu Kenkyusho) launched the online interactive "Disaster Chronology Map for Japan, 416–2013" (map labels in Japanese) to display in visual form the location, disaster time, and date across the islands.  As of March 2012, the Japanese government had recognized 1,331 deaths as indirectly related to the earthquake, such as caused by harsh living conditions after the disaster.  Others halted production due to safety checks and power loss.  On 5 April 2011, the government of the Ibaraki Prefecture banned the fishing of sand lance after discovering that this species was contaminated by radioactive caesium above legal limits. , A fire occurred in the turbine section of the Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant following the earthquake. Video footage of the towns that were worst affected shows little more than piles of rubble, with almost no parts of any structures left standing. A few cases of suicide are also included. One of the first major foreshocks was a 7.2 Mw event on 9 March, approximately 40 km (25 mi) from the epicenter of the 11 March earthquake, with another three on the same day in excess of 6.0 Mw. With damage to so many power plants, it was feared it might be years before a long-term solution could be found. Although the tsunami affected many of these places, the heights of the waves were minor. Equal joint 3: 2011 Tohoku earthquake. , JMA also reported offshore tsunami height recorded by telemetry from moored GPS wave-height meter buoys as follows:, On 25 March 2011, Port and Airport Research Institute (PARI) reported tsunami height by visiting the port sites as follows:, The tsunami at Ryōri Bay (綾里湾), Ōfunato reached a height of 40.1 metres (132 ft) (run-up elevation). Problems in issuing updates also contributed to delays in evacuations. It was measured at 8.4 on the JMA seismic intensity scale The earthquake happened 130 kilometres (81 mi) off Sendai, Miyagi Prefecture, on the east coast of the TÅhoku of Japan, on March 11, 2011 at 05:46:23 UTC.It was at a depth of 24.4 km (15.2 miles).  Three other prefectures—Fukushima, Ibaraki and Tochigi—recorded an upper 6 on the JMA scale. This earthquake occurred where the Pacific Plate is subducting under the plate beneath northern Honshu. On 11 March 2011, a massive 9.0 earthquake occurred off the Japanese coastline at 14:46.  In addition, some three thousands extra deaths have been identified as "earthquake-related deaths", bringing the total number of deaths caused by the disaster to 19,575 as of 2017 September. (2011, 19 March) "Japan Earthquake May Have Shifted Earth's Axis" – NPR online, PreventionWeb Great East Japan Earthquake 2011, Interactive Comparisons of Tōhoku Earthquake and Tsunami, Map to chronicle all known disasters in Japan from 416–2013, Foundation of the Covenant official and international dedicated to the victims of the tsunami, Nuclear power in Japan, section Seismicity, Fergana Valley (Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2011_Tōhoku_earthquake_and_tsunami&oldid=993497028, 2011 natural disasters in the United States, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Articles with dead external links from June 2016, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Articles containing potentially dated statements from March 2016, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with failed verification from February 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Port of Hachinohe area – 8–9 metres (26–30 ft), Sendai section of Shiogama-Sendai port – 8 metres (26 ft). YASAL UYARI: Yayınlanan yazılı haber, fotoğraf ve videonun tüm hakları İlke Haber Ajansı A.Ş. Yan Y. Kagan, & David D. Jackson Published May 2013, SCEC Contribution #1670 We consider three questions related to the 2011 Tohoku mega-earthquake: (1) Why was the event size so grossly under-estimated by Japan's national hazard map? Most of these deaths occurred during the first six months after the earthquake and the number dropped thereafter, but as time has passed, the number has continued to increase. It is believed that the early warning by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) saved many lives.   The Bank of Japan offered ¥15 trillion (US$183 billion) to the banking system on 14 March in an effort to normalize market conditions. , Along the Pacific Coast of Mexico and South America, tsunami surges were reported, but in most places caused little or no damage. The violent movement of the Earth's tectonic plates â¦  Analysis showed that this earthquake consisted of a set of three events.  The United States National Tsunami Warning Center issued a tsunami warning for the coastal areas in most of California, all of Oregon, and the western part of Alaska, and a tsunami advisory covering the Pacific coastlines of most of Alaska, and all of Washington and British Columbia, Canada. , The degree and extent of damage caused by the earthquake and resulting tsunami were enormous, with most of the damage being caused by the tsunami. The 11 March 2011, magnitude 9.0 Honshu, Japan earthquake (38.322 N, 142.369 E, depth 32 km) generated a tsunami observed over the Pacific region and caused tremendous local devastation. The earthquake and the tragic losses had been served as a significant inspiration for the Japan women's national football team, in which, in the 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup, managed to create the greatest giant-killing ever in the history where Japan came from nothing to become world champions despite the devastating earthquake and lack of funding for the team; the Nadeshiko itself also unveiled banner to thank global support despite adverse situations at home.  Voluntary reductions in electricity use by consumers in the Kanto area helped reduce the predicted frequency and duration of the blackouts. , According to the Japanese trade ministry, around 4.4 million households served by Tōhoku Electric Power (TEP) in northeastern Japan were left without electricity. ", Liquefaction driving away Chiba residents, Tokyo Disneyland's parking lot shows the risk of reclaimed land, "Japan Earthquake May Have Shifted Earth's Axis", "Magnitude 7.1 – NEAR THE EAST COAST OF HONSHU, JAPAN", "Fresh quake triggers tsunami warning in Japan", "Four dead as new tremor hits Japan disaster zone", "At least 6 killed in new Japan earthquake", "USGS 10-degree Map Centered at 35°N,140°E of earthquakes of magnitude 4.5 or over", "Aftershocks Associated With Impaired Health Caused by the Great East Japan Disaster Among Youth Across Japan: A National Cross-Sectional Survey Interact J Med Res 2013;2(2):e31", "Alert sounded a minute before the tremor struck", 経験則からのずれ ―はじめの数秒と強震動：τc, Pd，スペクトル，簡易震源域推定方法―, "Earthquake Early Warning and Tsunami Warning of JMA for the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake", "Tsunami warnings issued for at least 20 countries after quake", "Distance between Dichato, Chile and Sendai, Japan is 17228km", "Chile Lifts Tsunami Alerts After Japan Quake Spawns Waves", "Chilean site: (Tsunami) waves penetrated 70–100 m in different parts of the country", "Tsunami Information (Estimated Tsunami arrival time and Height)", Helmholtz Research Centre for Geosciences, Japan's tsunami victims only had 15 minutes warning, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Japan tsunami: Toll could rise to more than 1,300, "News: Tsunami rolls through Pacific, Sendai Airport under water, Tokyo Narita closed, Pacific region airports endangered", "10-meter tsunami observed in area near Sendai in Miyagi Pref", "Japan 8.9-magnitude earthquake sparks massive tsunami", "Earthquake, tsunami wreak havoc in Japan", Tsunami hit more than 100 designated evacuation sites, "9,500 unaccounted for in Miyagi's Minamisanriku: local gov't", "東北地方太平洋沖地震を教訓とした地震・津波対策に関する専門調査会中間とりまとめ", U.S. rescue teams find devastation in northern city of Ofunato, "Whole towns gone-no cars or people seen", "Honderden doden in Japanse kuststad (Hundreds dead in Japanese coastal town)" (in Dutch), "Japan army says 300–400 bodies found in Rikuzentakata: Report", Miyagi coastal whaling port pulverized, little more than memory, 'Nothing can prepare you to witness this', Tsunami Slams Japan After Record Earthquake, Killing Hundreds, "Japan disaster: 30 powerful images of the earthquake and tsunami", Survivors on cut-off isle were ready for disaster, Tsunami Information NUMBER 64 (Tsunami Observation), "Tsunami Information NUMBER 64(Tsunami Observations)", "Executive Summary of Urgent Field Survey of Earthquake and Tsunami Disasters by the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tōhoku Earthquake", "Researchers: 30-meter tsunami in Ofunato", "38-meter-high tsunami triggered by 11 March quake: survey", Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, "東北地方太平洋沖地震による津波被害を踏まえた津波警報の改善の方向性について（最終とりまとめ）", "Evacuate all coastal areas immediately, Hawaii Civil Defense says", "Text of PTWC Pacific-wide tsunami warning", "Tsunami from Japanese quake prompts evacuation of 11,000 residents on Russia's Pacific islands", "Tsunami Warning and Advisory No.  On 11 July 2016, the USGS further upgraded the earthquake to 9.1.  The peak electricity consumption within TEP's area was 12.46GW during the 2011 summer, 3.11GW (20%) less than the peak consumption in the previous year, and the overall consumption have been reduced by 11% in July with 17% in August compared to previous year. , Researchers have also analysed the economic effects of this earthquake and have developed models of the nationwide propagation via interfirm supply networks of the shock that originated in the Tōhoku region..  Several Wi-Fi hotspot providers reacted to the quake by providing free access to their networks, and some American telecommunications and VoIP companies such as AT&T, Sprint, Verizon, T-Mobile and VoIP companies such as netTALK and Vonage have offered free calls to (and in some cases, from) Japan for a limited time, as did Germany's Deutsche Telekom. Hence, earthquakes in this area with magnitudes of about 7 since 1926 had only released part of the accumulated energy. ", The 9.1-magnitude (Mw) undersea megathrust earthquake occurred on 11 March 2011 at 14:46 JST (05:46 UTC) in the north-western Pacific Ocean at a relatively shallow depth of 32 km (20 mi), with its epicenter approximately 72 km (45 mi) east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tōhoku, Japan, lasting approximately six minutes. This calculation is, in turn, based on the maximum amplitude of the seismic wave.  By summer the Vice-minister for Economy, Trade and Industry, the head of the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency, and the head of the Agency for Natural Resources and Energy had all lost their jobs. A massive earthquake of magnitude of 9.0 occurred Friday 11 March, off the Pacific coast of the northeastern part of the Japanese main land (Tohoku Region), causing devastating damages. A magnitude-9.0 earthquake struck off Japanâs northeastern coast. , An analyst estimates that consumption of various types of oil may increase by as much as 300,000 barrels (48,000 m3) per day (as well as LNG), as back-up power plants burning fossil fuels try to compensate for the loss of 11 GW of Japan's nuclear power capacity. The M 8.6 earthquake of March 2, 1933, produced tsunami waves as high as 29 m on the Sanriku Coast and caused more than 3,000 fatalities. , For the purpose of relief fund distribution, an "earthquake-related death" is defined as a case where the earthquake did not directly kill a person, but acted as a contributory factor that indirectly caused their death. The break caused the sea floor to rise by several metres.  Also, at the slope of a nearby mountain from 400 metres (1,300 ft) away at Aneyoshi fishery port (姉吉漁港) of Omoe peninsula (重茂半島) in Miyako, Iwate, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology found estimated tsunami run up height of 38.9 metres (128 ft). , The number of aftershocks was associated with decreased health across Japan. In the updated system, for a powerful earthquake that is capable of causing the JMA magnitude scale to saturate, no quantitative prediction will be released in the initial warning; instead, there will be words that describe the situation's emergency.  In Antarctica, the seismic waves from the earthquake were reported to have caused the Whillans Ice Stream to slip by about 0.5 metres (1 ft 8 in). Two days of seismic activity made available by the IRIS Consortium were compressed into two minutes of sound. An expedition named Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project have been conducted in year 2012–2013 to drill oceanfloor boreholes through the fault-zone of the earthquake and gathered important data about the rupture mechanism and physical properties of the fault that caused the huge earthquake and tsunami which devastated much of northeast Japan..  The hypocentral region of this earthquake extended from offshore Iwate Prefecture to offshore Ibaraki Prefecture.  Many electrical generators ran out of fuel.  The impact of the tsunami in and around Sendai Airport was filmed by an NHK News helicopter, showing a number of vehicles on local roads trying to escape the approaching wave and being engulfed by it. , The tsunami swept the Japanese mainland and killed over ten thousand people, mainly through drowning, though blunt trauma also caused many deaths. 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